- Mustard, any of several herbs belonging to the mustard family of plants, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae), or the condiment made from these plants’ pungent seeds.
- The leaves and swollen leaf stems of mustard plants are also used, as greens, or potherbs.
- The principal types are white, or yellow, mustard (Sinapis alba), a plant of Mediterranean origin; and brown, or Indian, mustard (Brassica juncea), which is of Himalayan origin.
- The latter species has almost entirely replaced the formerly used black mustard (Brassica nigra), which was unsuitable for mechanized cropping and which now occurs mainly as an introduced weed. Both white and brown mustard are grown as spring-sown annual crops whose dry seeds are harvested in early autumn.
- From very small seedlings, the plants grow rapidly and enter a phase of dense flowering; the blooms have an intense yellow colour.
- The plants reach their full height of 1.5 to 2 metres (5 to 61/2 feet) as their flowers fade and after numerous green seedpods appear on their branches.
- The pods of brown mustard contain up to 20 seeds each, those of white mustard contain up to 8 seeds.
- Mustard plants are easy and inexpensive to grow; they flourish on many different types of soil, suffer from unusually few insect pests or plant diseases, and tolerate extremes of weather without serious harm.